Nice night for a walk…

I was walking along the usual path in Bludwood Forest, on a cool misty night… the shadows were dancing along the hedgebane.

I heard what sounded like a twig snap off to one side, rustling of bushes, a black blur. I turn to try and spot what it was when I feel a chill on the back of my neck. I whip back around and see Dark Pestilence looking me in the eye…

*WHOOSH*

I fly backward after feeling a tug in the back of my body, swallowed up by the cool, grey mists.

The fog fades. I find myself in a castle hallway, feels familiar. A large, secure door is down at one end. It’s the hall that leads to the pyramid chamber, in the Castle of Myriad Shades.

Sprawling Maya network discovered under Guatemala jungle

Researchers have found more than 60,000 hidden Maya ruins in Guatemala in a major archaeological breakthrough.

Laser technology was used to survey digitally beneath the forest canopy, revealing houses, palaces, elevated highways, and defensive fortifications.

The landscape, near already-known Maya cities, is thought to have been home to millions more people than other research had previously suggested.

The researchers mapped over 810 square miles (2,100 sq km) in northern Peten.

Archaeologists believe the cutting-edge technology will change the way the world will see the Maya civilisation.

“I think this is one of the greatest advances in over 150 years of Maya archaeology,” said Stephen Houston, Professor of Archaeology and Anthropology at Brown University.

Mr Houston told the BBC that after decades of work in the archaeological field, he found the magnitude of the recent survey “breathtaking”. He added, “I know it sounds hyperbolic but when I saw the [Lidar] imagery, it did bring tears to my eyes.”

Full article: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-42916261

Divers Found The World’s Largest Underwater Cave, And It’s Full of Maya Secrets

After 10 months of intensive exploration, scientists in Mexico have discovered the world’s largest flooded cave system – and it’s truly an underwater wonderland.

Spanning an incredible 347 kilometres (216 miles) of subterranean caverns, this branching, sunken labyrinth isn’t just a natural spectacle – it’s also an important archaeological find that could reveal lost secrets of the ancient Maya civilisation.

“This immense cave represents the most important submerged archaeological site in the world,” says underwater archaeologist Guillermo de Anda from Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History.

“It has more than a hundred archaeological contexts, among which are evidence of the first settlers of America, as well as extinct fauna and, of course, the Maya culture.”

De Anda heads up the Great Maya Aquifer Project (GAM), a research effort which for decades has explored underwater caves in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, located on the Caribbean coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula.

The region hosts a stunning 358 submerged cave systems, representing some 1,400 kilometres (870 miles) of flooded freshwater tunnels hidden under the surface.

read here: http://www.sciencealert.com/world-s-largest-flooded-cave-discovered-under-mexico-yucatan-sac-actun

How a 22-Year-Old Discovered the Worst Chip Flaws in History

In 2013, a teenager named Jann Horn attended a reception in Berlin hosted by Chancellor Angela Merkel. He and 64 other young Germans had done well in a government-run competition designed to encourage students to pursue scientific research.

In Horn’s case, it worked. Last summer, as a 22-year-old Google cybersecurity researcher, he was first to report the biggest chip vulnerabilities ever discovered. The industry is still reeling from his findings, and processors will be designed differently from now on. That’s made him a reluctant celebrity, evidenced by the rousing reception and eager questions he received at an industry conference in Zurich last week.

Interviews with Horn and people who know him show how a combination of dogged determination and a powerful mind helped him stumble upon features and flaws that have been around for over a decade but had gone undetected, leaving most personal computers, internet servers and smartphones exposed to potential hacking.

Other researchers who found the same security holes months after Horn are amazed he worked alone. “We were several teams, and we had clues where to start. He was working from scratch,” said Daniel Gruss, part of a team at Graz University of Technology in Austria that later uncovered what are now known as Meltdown and Spectre.

Horn wasn’t looking to discover a major vulnerability in the world’s computer chips when, in late April, he began reading Intel Corp. processor manuals that are thousands of pages long. He said he simply wanted to make sure the computer hardware could handle a particularly intensive bit of number-crunching code he’d created.

But Zurich-based Horn works at Project Zero, an elite unit of Alphabet Inc.’s Google, made up of cybersleuths who hunt for “zero day” vulnerabilities, unintended design flaws that can be exploited by hackers to break into computer systems.

So he started looking closely at how chips handle speculative execution — a speed-enhancing technique where the processor tries to guess what part of code it will be required to execute next and starts performing those steps ahead of time — and fetching the required data. Horn said the manuals stated that if the processor guessed wrong, the data from those misguided forays would still be stored in the chip’s memory. Horn realized that, once there, the information might be exposed by a clever hacker.

“At this point, I realized that the code pattern we were working on might potentially leak secret data,” Horn said in emailed responses to Bloomberg questions. “I then realized that this could — at least in theory — affect more than just the code snippet we were working on.”

That started what he called a “gradual process” of further investigation that led to the vulnerabilities. Horn said he was aware of other research, including from Gruss and the team at Graz, on how tiny differences in the time it takes a processor to retrieve information could let attackers learn where information is stored.

Horn discussed this with another young researcher at Google in Zurich, Felix Wilhelm, who pointed Horn to similar research he and others had done. This led Horn to what he called “a big aha moment.” The techniques Wilhelm and others were testing could be “inverted” to force the processor to run new speculative executions that it wouldn’t ordinarily try. This would trick the chip into retrieving specific data that could be accessed by hackers.

read full-article: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-01-17/how-a-22-year-old-discovered-the-worst-chip-flaws-in-history

7 Modern BBSes Worth Calling Today

Way back in the 1980s and early 1990s, before the internet reigned supreme, many PC owners dialed up Bulletin Board Systems (BBSes), which were other PCs running special software that allowed users to connect and share messages, play games, or download files.

While few BBSes remain today compared to their height in the early-mid 1990s, one can still connect to a BBS using the internet. Thanks to the antique text-only protocol called telnet, you can use a terminal emulator program to start BBSing just like the glory days.

read more: https://www.pcmag.com/feature/358037/7-modern-bbses-worth-calling-today

Mysterious Void Discovered in Egypt’s Great Pyramid

Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Giza—one of the wonders of the ancient world, and a dazzling feat of architectural genius—contains a hidden void at least a hundred feet long, scientists announced on Thursday.

The space’s dimensions resemble those of the pyramid’s Grand Gallery, the 153-foot-long, 26-foot-tall corridor that leads to the burial chamber of Khufu, the pharaoh for whom the pyramid was built.

However, it remains unclear what lies within the space, what purpose it served, or if it’s one or multiple spaces.

The void is the first large inner structure discovered within the 4,500-year-old pyramid since the 1800s—a find made possible by recent advances in high-energy particle physics. The results were published in the journal Nature.

“This is definitely the discovery of the century,” says archaeologist and Egyptologist Yukinori Kawae, a National Geographic Emerging Explorer. “There have been many hypotheses about the pyramid, but no one even imagined that such a big void is located above the Grand Gallery.”

Source: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/11/great-pyramid-giza-void-discovered-khufu-archaeology-science/

Charting Hacker Hangouts From BBS To Slack

Where have all the grey hat hacker forums gone?

Grey hats were always a valuable part of the hacker community. They may sometimes cross ethical lines, but unlike black hats they’re in it to learn, not to make money. A black hat might intend to steal credit cards and resell them online. A grey hat is just interested in smart new ways to gain network access.

Back in the day, before you could buy Hacking for Dummies at your local Indigo store, even basic hacking knowledge was a valuable commodity. There were places online, where grey hats would hang out and trade it. They were forums dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, where the more advanced would mentor newcomers in the finer arts of system manipulation. They were places like The Works BBS.

The Works was a bulletin board system that started purely as an exchange board for text files, but which eventually allowed tech enthusiasts to talk to each other. It was here that Chris Wysopal, SecTor speaker and co-founder of l0pht, met his crew.

“I met the soon to be l0pht people there and cDC [Cult of the Dead Cow] folks there. It was a real community.  It morphed into the 2600 meetup community where we would meet up once a month in Cambridge, then later Boston,” he says.

Early hacker BBSs had their faults. They only had so many connections, meaning that participants might find themselves dialing a telephone number several times as they competed for time on a host machine. Despite that, the BBS movement had its cultural advantages.

“The early hacking BBSs were more of a tight-knit community because they were area code-based,” says Wysopal. “It cost money to make long-distance calls, but most people had unlimited plans for local numbers. “Phreakers could call long distance for free, but they still would hang out at a local BBS with their community. People used to call their neck of hackerdom by the area code.  I was a 617er.  NYC folks were 212s.  A famous early band of hackers was the 414s.”

Brian Bourne, co-founder of SecTor, spent a lot of time on BBSs in the early days. They were often invitation-only, and were therefore a haven for grey hats eager to exchange ideas, he says. Then, there was Internet Relay Chat (IRC).

“Law enforcement had no idea what a BBS was, never mind IRC!  So even though IRC channels were a bit harder to police membership and keep unknown folks out, we would share ideas with impunity,” he says.

Full article at source: https://sector.ca/charting-hacker-hangouts-from-bbs-to-slack/

‘The nail in the coffin’: Russia’s top cyber-firm may have made a ‘catastrophic’ mistake

Investigators believe that software from Russia’s top cybersecurity firm, Kaspersky Lab, was involved in a theft of top secret National Security Agency intelligence outlining how the US hacks its adversaries, The Wall Street Journal reported Thursday.

And depending on what was stolen, the breach could spell catastrophe for the company.

According to the Journal, an NSA contractor stole and downloaded onto his personal computer highly classified details about how the US penetrates foreign computer networks and defends itself against cyberattacks. (The Washington Post reported the person was not a contractor, but an employee working for the NSA’s elite hacking division known as Tailored Access Operations.)

Russian hackers then stole that intelligence by exploiting the Kaspersky antivirus software the contractor had been running on his computer.

The breach wasn’t discovered until spring 2016, according to the Journal and The Washington Post — nearly one year after the hackers are believed to have gained access to the intelligence.

Kaspersky has denied any involvement in the theft, and it is unclear whether the hackers stole code or documents from the contractor. The latter would prove far more damning for Kaspersky, experts say, especially as it stands accused by the US government of being a tool of the Kremlin.

“Ultimately, this will come down to what was stolen from the computer,” said David Kennedy, a former NSA intelligence analyst who founded the cybersecurity firm TrustedSec.

Source: http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/companies/the-nail-in-the-coffin-russias-top-cyber-firm-may-have-made-a-catastrophic-mistake/ar-AAsZZZY

Mathematical secrets of ancient tablet unlocked after nearly a century of study

The tablet could have been used in surveying, and in calculating how to construct temples, palaces and pyramids.

At least 1,000 years before the Greek mathematician Pythagoras looked at a right angled triangle and worked out that the square of the longest side is always equal to the sum of the squares of the other two, an unknown Babylonian genius took a clay tablet and a reed pen and marked out not just the same theorem, but a series of trigonometry tables which scientists claim are more accurate than any available today.

The 3,700-year-old broken clay tablet survives in the collections of Columbia University, and scientists now believe they have cracked its secrets.

The team from the University of New South Wales in Sydney believe that the four columns and 15 rows of cuneiform – wedge shaped indentations made in the wet clay – represent the world’s oldest and most accurate working trigonometric table, a working tool which could have been used in surveying, and in calculating how to construct temples, palaces and pyramids.

The fabled sophistication of Babylonian architecture and engineering is borne out by excavation. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, believed by some archaeologists to have been a planted step pyramid with a complex artificial watering system, was written of by Greek historians as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Daniel Mansfield, of the university’s school of mathematics and statistics, described the tablet which may unlock some of their methods as “a fascinating mathematical work that demonstrates undoubted genius” – with potential modern application because the base 60 used in calculations by the Babylonians permitted many more accurate fractions than the contemporary base 10.

Read more: Mathematical secrets of ancient tablet unlocked after nearly a century of study

The Story of NESticle, the Ambitious Emulator That Redefined Retro Gaming

The product of a talented programmer who designed a hit shareware game while he was still in high school, NESticle was so good that everyone looked past the fact its name was basically a dick joke.

The second stage of the Nintendo Entertainment System’s long lifespan started in earnest on April 3, 1997.

By that time, Nintendo had already moved on to 3D gaming with Super Mario 64. But an army of game fans, largely teens and college students who had been young children when the NES first came out in the early 1980s, were setting the stage for its legacy.

One of those fans, a programmer from Kansas with an offbeat sense of humor and an unmissable skillset, released a PC emulator for the NES—a reverse-engineered software version of the hardware platform. Called “NESticle,” its Windows icon was, quite literally and indelicately, a pair of testicles.

NESticle, nonetheless, did something amazing: It allowed people to play old Nintendo games on cheap computers made by Packard Bell and other firms, and did so while introducing a number of fundamental new ways to appreciate those games. Divorced from Nintendo’s famously draconian licensing strategy, it introduced new ways of thinking about well-tread video games.

Would we have the retro-friendly gaming culture that we do today without its existence? Maybe, but it’s possible it might not be quite so vibrant.

This is the story of how NESticle helped turn retro gaming into a modern cultural force.

Icer Addis was named Wichita High School Southeast’s Class of 1994 most likely graduate to become a millionaire. He had shown some early signs of brilliance by making PC games with his friend Ethan Petty. By the time he graduated from high school, their company, Bloodlust Software, was riding a wave of success during the shareware era. Their first hit, Executioners, a crude-but-funny beat-’em-up game in the Final Fight mold, was full of visual jokes, some of them featuring Addis and Petty, the game’s visual artist.

read more: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/the-story-of-nesticle-the-ambitious-emulator-that-redefined-retro-gaming

Ancient stone carvings confirm how comet struck Earth in 10,950BC, sparking the rise of civilisations

Ancient stone carvings confirm that a comet struck the Earth around 11,000BC, a devastating event which wiped out woolly mammoths and sparked the rise of civilisations.

Experts at the University of Edinburgh analysed mysterious symbols carved onto stone pillars at Gobekli Tepe in southern Turkey, to find out if they could be linked to constellations.

The markings suggest that a swarm of comet fragments hit Earth at the exact same time that a mini-ice age struck, changing the entire course of human history.

Scientists have speculated for decades that a comet could be behind the sudden fall in temperature during a period known as the Younger Dryas. But recently the theory appeared to have been debunked by new dating of meteor craters in North America where the comet is thought to have struck.

However, when engineers studied animal carvings made on a pillar – known as the vulture stone – at Gobekli Tepe they discovered that the creatures were actually astronomical symbols which represented constellations and the comet.

The idea had been originally put forward by author Graham Hancock in his book Magicians of the Gods.

Source: Ancient stone carvings confirm how comet struck Earth in 10,950BC, sparking the rise of civilisations

New Evidence Links a 20-Year-Old Hack on the US Government to a Modern Attack Group

The artifacts they found on Hedges’ server provide an interesting look at the group’s early operations, showing how they improved their code and methods over time, if indeed they are the group now known as Turla.

“It’s almost like archaeology; you can see the evolution of tradecraft,” Rid told Motherboard. “There was a lot of handiwork involved. They didn’t really use automated command-and-control at the time; they actually had to log in and move data around [manually].”

The Moonlight Maze group stripped away components that didn’t work and combined tools that did to make them more potent. And unlike modern hacking operations that use a lot of automated scripts, the Moonlight Maze operators did everything in real time. They would log-in to Hedges’ server in the morning and manually set up tasks to tell their malware what to do, which got populated out to all the infected machines on DoD and government networks that they controlled.

“This is hacking in the 90s, so it looks very different from what we’re used to in modern operations,” Guerrero-Saade said.

Source: New Evidence Links a 20-Year-Old Hack on the US Government to a Modern Attack Group – Motherboard

Astronomers to peer into a black hole for first time with new Event Horizon Telescope

On April 5-14 2017, the team behind the Event Horizon Telescope hopes to test the fundamental theories of black-hole physics by attempting to take the first ever image of a black hole’s event horizon (the point at which theory predicts nothing can escape). By connecting a global array of radio telescopes together to form the equivalent of a giant Earth-sized telescope – using a technique known as Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Earth-aperture synthesis – scientists will peer into the heart of our Milky Way galaxy where a black hole that is 4m times more massive than our sun – Sagittarius A* – lurks.

Source: Astronomers to peer into a black hole for first time with new Event Horizon Telescope